304 North Cardinal St.
Dorchester Center, MA 02124
Monday to Friday: 7AM - 7PM
Weekend: 10AM - 5PM
304 North Cardinal St.
Dorchester Center, MA 02124
Monday to Friday: 7AM - 7PM
Weekend: 10AM - 5PM
One of the most significant obstacles that must be overcome while treating bacterial illnesses is antibiotic resistance. In addition to this, frequent nosocomial infections create a great deal of additional difficulties, particularly in hospitalized patients.
According to the research that was released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2019, it was found that bacterial infections cause the deaths of more than 700 thousand individuals every year around the world. Because of this condition, many approaches to solving the problem were developed.
Antibacterial materials are among these potential treatments, and they may hold the most promise. Antibacterial hydrogels are employed in a wide variety of fields, including waste disposal, water treatment, surface coating, and most notably the biomedical field. These hydrogels are frequently the subject of research in the academic literature.
For the purposes of this investigation, it has been suggested that an antibacterial hydrogel may be manufactured.
It is believed that it will develop excellent biocompatibility as a result of the N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide (HPMA) that it contains, and as a result, it will be appropriate for use in a variety of tissue engineering investigations, particularly in wound dressing.
A positive charge will be imparted onto the polymer as a result of the incorporation of quaternized 4-vinylpyridine into its structure. As a result, it is hypothesized that the substance will eradicate the bacteria by a contact-active process, which will result in the destruction of the negatively charged bacterial wall. Cryogelation is chosen as the manufacturing process because it is intended to produce a hydrogel with a structure that is comparable in size to that of macropores.
As a result, it will be able to behave as a sponge to take in bacteria cells and then destroy them. It is believed that the toxicity that will occur in the tissue with the antibacterial mechanism will be at a minimum level, thanks to the positive charges that are present in its structure. This is in contrast to hydrogels, which release antibacterial agents, also known as biocides, into the environment.
The cryogel that we suggest in this study has the goals of lowering the number of bacterial infections, avoiding illnesses that may be spread through contact in public areas, and making it simpler to treat bacterial infections that are resistant to antibiotics.
If it is used as a wound dressing, it will prevent subsequent infections by providing antibacterial activity around the wound, which will allow the tissue to recover more quickly. This will be accomplished by giving antibacterial activity surrounding the wound.
It is believed that when it is used in water treatment or disinfection, it contributes to the purification or sterilization of the water. Additionally, it is believed that when it is applied as a surface coating material to various medical devices, it will prevent the formation of bacterial biofilm and reduce the number of infections that occur in hospitals.
Hydrogel is a hydrophilic, water-insoluble polymeric macromolecule that has a high water absorption capacity, can be used in a wide variety of biomedical fields, and consists of porous, flexible, cross-linked polymer chains that can be produced in a wide variety of chemical and physical properties [1-3]. Hydrogel can be used in many different applications.
It has antibacterial properties, so it can be utilized in the medical field, as well as in the cleaning and purification of water from bacteria, as a tissue scaffold and wound dressing material in tissue engineering, in the removal of chemicals from the environment, in purification processes, and as a tissue scaffold and wound dressing material in tissue engineering
Researchers have discovered an alternate option in the form of antibacterial hydrogels specifically in response to the rise in antibiotic resistance.
Because the substance does not include any medications, such as antibiotics, resistance does not develop, and an efficient antibacterial mechanism is produced as a result.
The diseases that are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are responsible for the deaths of more than 13 million people throughout the world every year. The number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is on the rise.
The gravity of the situation has resulted in a rise in the significance of research into antibacterial materials.
Due of the positive charge that they carry, quaternized ammonium groups are widely utilized in the production of antibacterial hydrogels. This is because of their ability to degrade the negatively charged bacterial wall.
Particularly, polymers with quaternary ammonium groups are put to use in the manufacturing of self-antibacterial hydrogels . The quaternization of the tertiary amine group that 4-vinylpyridine has results in a positive charge on the molecule, which confers antibacterial capabilities on the molecule.
Another polymer that is employed in drug delivery and antibacterial hydrogel applications is called N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide, which is abbreviated as HPMA.
Because of the fact that it is biocompatible, it offers a significant benefit
In the course of this research, we will be combining two different polymers to create a new one called a copolymer.
Because of this, the hydrogel that is ultimately produced will not only be biocompatible but also exhibit antibacterial qualities.
In order to prevent germs from escaping via its pores, the hydrogel, which is designed to have a contact active mechanism, has to have a macroporous structure. Because of this factor, the cryogelation technique was selected as the method of choice for the generation of the gel.
The process of cryogelation refers to the simultaneous cross-linking of polymer in solution that takes place at extremely low temperatures.
It is the ice crystals themselves that are responsible for freezing in the gaps between the polymers and acting as a porogen .
The frozen solution will melt during the thawing phase that follows cryogelation, and the resulting cryogel will have a macroporous structure. In the course of our research, we intended to get rid of the water by drying out the frozen gel.
As a consequence of the findings of the study, the things that have been listed above
Utilizing its features will result in the production of a cryogel that has excellent biocompatibility, is non-toxic, has a macroporous structure, fights bacteria on its own, and has an efficient mechanism.
The development of resistance to antibiotics is one of the most significant challenges facing efforts to treat and prevent bacterial illnesses.
Infectious diseases caused by germs claim the lives of around 13 million people every year.
Because of this, several approaches are being investigated as potential means of either preventing or treating infection.
Research on substances that inhibit the growth of bacteria has produced some encouraging findings relevant to this field.
It has been proposed to make a positively charged cryogel containing N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide (HPMA) by combining macroporous quaternized 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) with N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide (HPMA). This research was carried out to investigate this hypothesis.
Keeping this in mind; When the pH level of the environment that 4-VP is in shifts, it can exhibit a variety of alterations in both its chemical and morphological features. At acidic pHs and also by quaternization with a variety of chemicals, the tertiary amine group that is present in the pyridine ring may be caused to acquire a positive charge.
It is hypothesized in this investigation that the cryogel, after undergoing quaternization and acquiring a positive charge, will acquire antibacterial capabilities.
One of the hydrophilic polymers that sees the most application in the field of biomedical research is called N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide, or HPMA for short.
In the research for the thesis, it was found to be superior because it possessed crucial qualities such as a high level of biocompatibility, an effect that was non-toxic, and a reduced ability to surface adsorb. It was believed that by synthesizing 4-VP as a copolymer with biocompatible HPMA, a substance that had minimal toxicity could be produced. This was due to the fact that 4-VP has a hazardous impact when it is used on its own.
The chemical compound known as 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) is a crosslinking agent that is soluble in water and activates carboxyl and amine groups. It has an effect at both room temperature and temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius. Crosslinking prevents the development of undesirable side groups since there is no mediator involved in the process.
In the course of this investigation, EDC will accomplish crosslinking by connecting the amine groups of ethylene diamine in the medium with the -COOH groups that are located at the end of the quaternary pyridine ring. In addition, given that cryogelation will be utilized as the manufacturing technique, the temperature at which the EDC is designed to operate is also acceptable for the temperature at which the reaction will take place.
This is due to the fact that cryogelation results in hydrogels that have architectures that are macroporous.
The cryogel that we proposed in the study is intended to kill bacteria by trapping them, hence the pore size of the gel should be somewhat large for this purpose. It is hoped that by doing things in this manner, the desired quality would be accomplished.
In the same vein, the liquid absorption capacity of the cryogel produced by this method will end up being greater than that of hydrogels produced by the same method.
There is a consensus among scientists that hydrogels are hydrophilic polymeric macromolecules that are insoluble in water.
They are sometimes referred to as semi-open network systems and are made up of intertwined or short chains of variable lengths that are connected to one another via cross-links .
To put it another way, hydrogels are a type of material that may be produced either by the polymerization of water-loving monomers in the presence of crosslinkers or by the cross-linking of polymer chains that have a structure that is water-friendly .
In 1960, Wichterle and Lim were the ones who initially reported it. A hydrogel must have a water content of at least 10% of its total weight, according to the definition of the term, in order for the material to be termed a hydrogel (or volume).
Due to the high water content of hydrogels, they also possess a degree of elasticity that is comparable to that of genuine tissue .
For instance, bacterial biofilms and vegetative structures are examples of themes that may be discovered everywhere in nature and that include a significant quantity of water.
There is evidence that gelatin and agar were key materials in the early stages of human history . [Citation needed]
When subjected to a solvent that is thermodynamically appropriate, such as water or any biological fluid, these materials, which are capable of holding a large amount of solvent in their pores or in the interstitial spaces that are present throughout their structure, are able to reach their maximum dimensions by completely expanding .
In response to particular chemical and physical stimuli, hydrogels go through a phase transition that is characterized as a gel-sol transition or a dramatic change in volume.
These physical stimuli include temperature, electric and magnetic field, solvent content, light intensity, and light intensity, whilst chemical (or biochemical) advantages can be described as pH, presence of ions, and particular compounds .
The conformational alterations of the hydrogel can, in the vast majority of instances, be reversed.
In other words, the hydrogel substance is capable of reverting back to its initial condition following a response in which the stimulus is eliminated.
The reaction of the material to stimuli from the outside world is determined by the type of monomer that makes up the material, the charge density of the material, the existence of chains, and the degree to which the chains are cross-linked .
The presence of hydrophilic side groups in the main chain (backbone) of the molecule is what gives hydrogels their hydrophilic character, as well as their ability to absorb water and maintain their rigidity.
Examples of groups that can be offered are alcohol, carboxylic acid (-COOH), amide (-CONH2), amino (-NH2), and sulfonic acid (-SO3H). 
Hydrogels are able to satisfy the biological and material criteria for tissue/organ treatment and interaction with biological systems . These needs include the functionality that is sought, the reversibility of the material, its capacity to be sterilized, and its biocompatibility.
Because of these features, hydrogels can also be utilized in the domains of water purification, ion exchange chromatography, oil recovery, the sensor business, the immobilized enzyme industry, agriculture, food packaging, pharmacy, and biomedical research.
Hydrogels have a number of qualities that can be favorable, such as their hydrophilicity, swelling ability, gelability, mechanical strength, porosity, and biocompatibility; yet, they also have a number of properties that can be detrimental .
The application of hydrogels is restricted due to a number of factors including their low solubility, high crystallization, certain unfavorable mechanical and thermal characteristics, the existence of unreacted monomers, and the utilization of hazardous crosslinkers.
The monomer that was used to make the hydrogel, as well as the type of bond that was made, both have an effect on its capacity to biodegrade. Because of this, the degree to which hydrogels are capable of biodegrading is contingent on the particular use to which they will be put